Daily Diary

A close collaboration with Dr. Rory Wilson of Swansea University resulted in the TDR10-Daily Diary tag. This tag incorporates an accelerometer, a magnetometer and a speed sensor to provide insight to the detailed behavior of animals.
We use the name “Daily Diary” (TDR10-Daily Diary, or TDR10-DD) for this tag with permission from and to acknowledge our collaboration with Dr. Rory Wilson. The TDR10-DD tag incorporates our standard depth, temperature, and light-level sensors, plus additional motion and attitude sensors. The additional sensors measure 3 axes of accelerations, 3 axes of magnetic field strength, and speed using a paddle wheel.

The additional sensors readings can be used to estimate a range of behavioral characteristics. The attitude (tilt and roll) of the tag and animal can be derived from static acceleration data. The accelerometers could also be used to dynamically detect head strike or lunge events. Magnetic heading and other components of earth magnetic field strengths that are used for navigation (e.g., magnetic dip angle) can be derived by combining attitudinal information (tilt and roll) with magnetometer readings.  Combining changes in depth with the paddle wheel speed measurements allow the derivation of the horizontal and vertical components of the animal’s swimming speed.

The direction and assignment of the accelerometer and magnetometer axes are illustrated in the following picture. Note that positive X-axis indicates the direction of travel for optimal paddle wheel performance.
External Temperature
Range: -40°C to +60°C
Resolution: 0.05°C
Accuracy: ±0.1°C
Sample Rate: 32/second maximum, 1/second typical

Range: 0 to 2000 meters
Resolution: 0.5 meters
Accuracy: ±1% of Reading
Sample Rate: 32/second maximum, 1/second typical

Light Level
Range: 5 x 10-10 to 5 x 10-2 (8 decades)
Resolution: 20 units/decade
Passband: 470 nanometers
Sample Rate: 32/second maximum, 1/second typical

3-Axes Acceleration
Range: ±2g (-20m/s/s to 20 m/s/s)
Resolution: 0.05 m/s/s
Sample Rate: 32/second maximum
Sensor Coordinate Frame: Right-Handed

Note that setting the tag on a desk (motionless) will produce the following static acceleration values: X = 0, Y = 0, Z = -9.8 m/s/s

3-Axes Magnetic Field Strength
Range: ±100 nanotesla
Resolution: 0.2 nanotesla
Sample Rate: 32/second maximum
Sensor Coordinate Frame: Right-Handed

Paddle Wheel Speed
Range: 0 to 5 m/s
Resolution: 0.01 m/s
Sample Rate: 1/second maximum

The TDR10-DD is powered by two AA batteries and has 1 gigabyte of memory. The maximum deployment duration of the TDR10-Daily Diary is defined by the sensor sampling rates. Due to the large memory installed in the TDR10-DD, battery capacity is the limiting factor. Below are case illustrations of sampling rates with the associated number of days it would take fill memory and exhaust the battery.

Note that the tag’s expected battery life is impacted dramatically by the actual speed of the animal. Extremely slow speeds cause more power to be consumed by the paddle wheel and account for the “minimum” battery life.

Case 1
Accelerometer and Magnetometer @ 16 samples/sec
Depth, Temperature, Paddle Wheel @ 1 sample/sec
Number of days until memory is filled = 77
Battery Life = 21 days minimum, 40 days typical

Case 2
Accelerometer and Magnetometer @ 16 Samples/Sec
Depth, Temperature, Paddle Wheel @ 2 Sample/Sec
Number of days until memory is filled = 79
Battery Life = 30 days minimum, 40 days typical

Case 3
Accelerometer and Magnetometer @ 8 Samples/Sec
Depth, Temperature, Paddle Wheel @ 1 Sample/Sec
Number of days until memory is filled = 148 Days
Battery Life = 28 days minimum, 70 days typical

Case 4
Accelerometer and Magnetometer @ 8 Samples/Sec
Depth, Temperature, Paddle Wheel @ 2 Sample/Sec
Number of days until memory is filled = 154 Days
Battery Life = 42 days minimum, 80 days typical

The WC-DAP processor can calculate several derived values from the archived acceleration and magnetic field strength data. Because accelerometers do not differentiate between static (caused by gravity) and dynamic (i.e., change in velocity or centrifugal forces) accelerations, we can only calculate tilt when the acceleration is assumed to be primarily static. Gravitational acceleration is 9.8 m/s/s. Therefore we calculate tilt when the total acceleration of all 3 axes is 9.8 + 0.2 m/s/s.

When the tilt of the tag is calculated, WC-DAP also calculates the below-derived readings.

Note that in special cases one can increase the times when identification of static acceleration can be isolated from the total acceleration readings using methods such as low-pass filtering. Because such techniques require a knowledge of the study animal’s behavior, WC-DAP does not perform low-pass filtering.

This is the counterclockwise rotation of the tag about its Y axis (see Figure 1). This value is given in degrees from -90 to +90 (where a horizontal tag reads 0 degrees).

This is the counterclockwise rotation of the tag about its X axis (see Figure 1). This value is given in degrees from -180 to +180 (where a tag flat on its base reads 0 degrees).

This is the direction in which the nose of the tag is pointing. The value is expressed in degrees on a scale from 0 to 360. Magnetic North corresponds to a reading of 0 with a clockwise rotation increasing the value (consistent with navigational headings).

This is the value of the vertical component of earth’s magnetic field strength, derived from the total magnetic field strength. The value is given in microteslas.

This is the value of the horizontal component of earth’s magnetic field strength, derived from the total magnetic field strength. The value is given in microteslas.

This is the angle at which the earth’s magnetic flux lines enter the earth’s surface. This value is given in degrees, from -90 to +90 with 0 being completely horizontal to the earth’s surface. +90 corresponds to the tag resting directly over the magnetic north pole while a -90 reading means the tag is over the magnetic south pole.

This is the overall strength of the earth’s magnetic field. It is the vector sum of the three magnetometer channels. The value is presented in microteslas.

Tag Agent only works on Windows XP or higher.

Tag Agent administers the following tags:

BathyGraph, DSA, mrPAT, PTR, SPOT5, SPOT6, SPOT6-F, MiniPAT

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